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Abdalla, Charles W., & John C. Becker, Jurisdictional Boundaries: Who Should Make The Rules Of The Regulatory Game?, 3 Drake J. Agric. L. 7 (1998).      

Adler, Reid G., Can Patents Coexist with Breeders’ Rights? Developments in US and International Biotechnology Law, 17 Int. Rev. Ind. Prop. Copyright L. 195 (1986).   

Adler, Reid G., Controlling the Applications of Biotechnology: A Critical Analysis of the   Proposed Moratorium on Animal Patenting, 1 Harv. J.L. & Tec. 1 (1988).    

Albrecht, Michelle K., Genetic Engineering of Domestic Animals: Human Prerogative or Animal Cruelty?, 6 Animal L. 233 (2000).

Allen, Don W., The Rights of Non-Human Animals and World Public Order: A Global Assessment, 28 N.Y.L. Sch. L. Rev. 377 (1983).    

Andrues, Mary Carter, USC Symposium on Judicial Election, Selection, and Accountability: Note: Proof Of Cancer Causation In Toxic Waste Litigation: The Case of Determinacy Versus Indeterminacy, 61 S. Cal. L. Rev. 2075 (1988).    

Arnold, Earl C., The Law of Possession Governing the Acquisition of Animals Ferae Naturae, 55 Am. L. Rev. 393 (1921). 

Aurvalec, Lori, Use of Animals in Medical Research: The Need for Governmental Regulation, 24 Wayne L. Rev. 1733 (1978).


Babbitt, Bruce, Between the Flood and the Rainbow: Our Covenant to Protect the Whole of Creation, 2 Animal L. 1 (1996).   

Bader, Paul L., Casenote, Church of the Lukumi Babalu Aye v. City of Hialeah, 44 Mercer L. Rev. 1357 (1993).      

Baur, Donald C., Reconciling Polar Bear Protection Under United States Laws and the International Agreement for the Conservation of Polar Bears, 2 Animal L. 9 (1996). 

Bekhoff, Marc, "Do Dogs Ape" Or "Do Apes Dog" And Does It Matter? Broadening Deepening Cognitive Ethology, 3 Animal L. 13 (1997).   

Bennett, Richard E., & Richard F. McCarthy, Statutory Protection for Farm Animals, 3 Pace Envtl. L. Rev. 229 (1986).   

Bennon, Rhonda, Research Guide for Animal Welfare and Animal Rights, 4 Legal Reference Services Q. 3 (1984).   

Berman, Paul Schiff, Note, Rats, Pigs, and Statues on Trial: The Creation of Cultural Narratives in the Prosecution of Animals and Inanimate Objects, 69 N.Y.U. L. Rev. 288 (1994).   

Beyer, Gerry W., Pet Animals: What Happens When Their Humans Die?, 40 Santa Clara L. Rev. 617 (2000).      

Bisgould, Lesli, Animal Oppression and the Pragmatist, 3 Animal L. 39 (1997). 

Blomquist, Robert F., Legal Perspectives on Cloning: Cloning Endangered Animal Species?, 32 Val. U. L. Rev. 383 (1998).       

Blunt, Paul, Note, Selective Breeding and the Patenting of Living Organisms, 48 Syracuse L. Rev. 1365 (1998).      

Bohrer, Robert A., Food Products Affected by Biotechnology, n1, 55 U. Pitt. L. Rev. 653 (1994).      

Boman, David, "All Animals Are Equal but Some Are More Equal than Others." Recent Developments in Efforts to Enhance the Protection of Animals, 30 Washburn L.J. 271 (1991).

Bradford, Nettie, Property Rights of Animals, 37 Bull. U. Utah 9 (1946).   

Breyer, Amy A., Asset Forfeiture and Animal Cruelty: Making One of the Most Powerful Tools in the Law Work for the Most Powerless Members of Society, 6 Animal L. 203 (2000).

Brody, Mimi, Animal Research: A Call for Legislative Reform Requiring Ethical Merit Review, 13 Harv. Envtl. L. Rev. 423 (1989).   

Brosnahan, Paula, New Zealand’s Animal Welfare Act: What Is Its Value Regarding Nonhuman Hominids?, 6 Animal L. 185 (2000).

Burr, Stephen I., Toward Legal Rights for Animals, 7 B.C. Envtl. Aff. L. Rev. 205 (1975).   

Buyukmihei, Ned, The Use of Nonhuman Animals in Research, 82 L. Libr. J. 351 (1990).


Carlisle, Frances, Destruction of Pets by Will Provisions, 16 Real Prop. Prob. & Tr. J. 894 (1981).   

Carson, H.L., The Trial of Animals and Insects: A Little Known Chapter of Medieval Jurisprudence, 56 Am. Phil. Soc'y J. 410-415 (1997).   

Castillo, Rachel G., Comments, Canines Cry Out: Is Six Months in a British Quarantine a   Necessity for Rabies Prevention?, 16 Dick. J. Int'l L. 459 (1998).    

Cavalieri, Liebe F., Science as Technology, 51 S. Cal. L. Rev. 1153 (1978).   

Centner, Terence J., Concentrated Feeding Operations: An Examination of Current Regulations and Suggestions for Limiting Negative Externalities, 25 Colum. J. Envtl. L. 219 (2000).    

Chambers, Steve Ann, Animal Cruelty Legislation: The Pasado Law and Its Legacy, 2 Animal L. 193 (1997).

Chase, Marcelle, Animal Rights: An Interdisciplinary, Selective Bibliography, 82 L. Libr. J. 359 (1990).   

Chiapetta, James R., Of Mice and Machine: A Paradigmatic Challenge to Interpretation of the Patent Statute, 20 Wm Mitchell L. Rev. 155 (1994).   

Clemens, Shari E., Fourth Annual Conference on Animals and the Law: Foreword, 16 Pace    Envtl. L. Rev. 97 (1998).      

Coase, R.H., The Problem of Social Cost, 3 J.L. & Econ. 1 (1960). 

Coggins & Ward, The Law of Wildlife Management on the Federal Public Lands, 60 Oregon L. Rev. 59 (1981).   

Coggins, G., & S. Patti, The Resurrection and Expansion of the Migratory Bird Treaty Act, 50 U. Colo. L. Rev. 165 (1979).   

Coggins, George C., & Deborah L. Smith, The Emerging Law of Wildlife: A Narrative Bibliography, 6 Envtl. L. 583 (1976).   

Coggins, George C., Federal Wildlife Law Achieves Adolescence: Developments in the 1970s, 1978 Duke L.J. 753 (1978).   

Coggins, George C., Legal Protection for Marine Mammals: An Overview of Innovative Resources Conservation Legislation, 6 Envtl. L. 1 (1975).    

Coggins, George C., Wildlife and the Constitution: The Walls Come Tumbling Down, 55 Wash. L. Rev. 295 (1980).   

Cohen, H., Some Preliminary Thoughts on Permitting Animals to Sue in Contract and Tort, 4 Int'l J. Study Animal Prob. 284 (1983).   

Cohen, Henry, Federal Animal Protection Statues, 1 Animal L. 143 (1995).   

Cohen, Henry, The Legality of the Agriculture Department’s Exclusion of Rats and Mice from Coverage Under the Animal Welfare Act, 31 St. Louis U. L.J. 543 (1987).   

Cohn, Pricilla, The Thirsty Cow and an Important Distinction, 3 Animal L. 31 (1997).   

Coleridge, Stephen, The Administration of the Cruelty to Animals Act of 1976, 73 Fortnightly Rev. 392 (March 1, 1990).   

Cornell, Drucilla, Are Women Persons?, 3 Animal L. 7 (1997).   

Coursey, Don L., The Revealed Demand for a Public Good: Evidence from Endangered and Threatened Species, 6 N.Y.U. Envtl. L.J. 411 (1998).      

Crammond, James D., Screening Water Diversions for Fish Protection: A Survey of Policy, Practices, and Compliance in the Pacific Northwest, 2 Animal L. 101 (1996).   

Cruz, R. Ted., Recent Development Animal Sacrifice and Equal Protection Free Exercise: Church of the Lukumi Babalu Aye, Inc. v. City of Hialeah, 113 S.CT. 2217 (1993), 17 Harv. J. L. & Pub. Pol’y 262 (1994). 


D’Amato, Anthony & Sudhirk Chopra, Whales: Their Emerging Right to Life, 85 Am.J. Int’l. L. 21 (1991)

Dale, Gillian, Comment, The European Union's Steel Leghold Trap Ban: Animal Cruelty   Legislation in Conflict with International Trade, 7 Colo. J. Int'l Envtl. L. & Pol'y 441 (1996).      

Daniel, Michelle D., Air Transportation of Animals: Passengers or Property?, 51 J. Air L. & Com. 497 (1986).    

Darling, Lafcadio H., Legal Protection for Horses: Care and Stewardship or Hypocrisy and Neglect?, 6 Animal L. 105 (2000).

De Montmorency, J.E.G., State Protection of Animals at Home and Abroad, 18 L.Q. Rev. 31 (1902).   

Decapo, Thomas A., Note, Challenging Objectionable Animal Treatment with the Shareholder   Proxy Proposal Rule, 1988 U. Ill. L. Rev. 119 (1988).      

Delgado, Richard, & David R. Millen, God, Galileo, and Government: Toward Constitutional Protection for Scientific Inquiry, 53 Wash. L. Rev. 349 (1978).   

DeVeau, Dane, Casenote & Comment, The Taking of Threatened Species Under the Endangered Species Act: Fund for Animals v. Turner, 30 Idaho L. Rev. 109 (1993).   

Dichter, Anita, Legal Definitions of Cruelty and Animal Rights, 7 B.C. Envtl. Aff. L. Rev. 147 (1978).   

DiSabatino, Michael A., Validity, Construction, and Application of Endangered Species Act of 1973, 32 Am. L. Rep. Fed. 332 (1997).   

Dobra, Peter M., Cetaceans: A Litany of Cain, 7 B.C. Envtl. Aff. L. Rev. (1978).   

Dolan, Coby, Examining the Viability of Another Lord of Yesterday: Open Range Laws and   Livestock Dominance in the Modern West, 5 Animal L. 147 (1999).      

Dotson, Darrell G., Comment, The European Controversy over Genetic-Engineering Patents, 19 Hous. J. Int'l L 919 (1997).      

Doyle, Patricia, The European Community and Wildlife Supervision: The Sovereign Right To Protect National Resources, 9 N.Y. Int’l L. Rev. 49 (1996).

Dresser, Rebecca, Assessing Harm and Justification in Animal Research: Federal Policy Opens the Laboratory Door, 40 Rutgers L. Rev. 723 (1988).   

Dresser, Rebecca, Ethical and Legal Issues in Patenting of New Animal Life, 28 Jurimetrics J. 399 (1988).   

Dresser, Rebecca, Research on Animals: Values, Politics, and Regulatory Reform, 58 S. Cal. L. Rev. 1147 (1985).   

Druckler, Geordie, Toward a More Appropriate Jurisprudence Regarding the Legal Status of Zoos and Zoo Animals, 3 Animal L.189 (1997).   

Dudek, Ronald D., The Use of Animals in Medical Research and Testing: Does the Tail Wag the Dog?, 14 Ohio Nw. U. L. Rev. 87 (1987).   

Dukes, Esther F., The Improved Standards for Laboratory Animals Act: Will It Ensure that the Policy of the Animal Welfare Act Becomes a Reality?, 31 St. Louis U. L.J. 519 (1987).   

Durrant, Sean Peterson, Wyoming’s Hunt Interference Law - Anarchy in the Woods: How Far Afield Does the Right of Free Speech Extend?, 27 Land & Water L. Rev. 505 (1992).   

Dye, Lavonne R., Note, The Marine Mammal Protection Act: Maintaining the Commitment to   Marine Mammal Conservation, 43 Case W. Res. 1411 (1993).


Earnshaw, Gwendellyn Io, Equity as a Paradigm for Sustainability: Evolving the Process Toward Interspecies Equity, 5 Animal L.113 (1999).      

Eck, Christopher C., & Robert E. Bovett, Oregon Dog Control Laws & Due Process: A Case   Study, 4 Animal L. 95 (1998).      

Eichstaedt, Richard Kirk, "Save the Whales" v. "Save the Makah": The Makah and the Struggle   for Native Whaling, 4 Animal L. 145 (1998).      

The Emerging Law of Wildlife II: A Narrative Bibliography of Federal Wildlife Law, 4 Harv. Envtl. L. Rev. 59 (1981).      

Erdheim, The Wake of the Snail Darter: Insuring the Effectiveness of Section 7 of the Endangered Species Act, 9 Ecology L.Q. 629 (1981).   

Ewald, William, Comparative Jurisprudence (I): What Was It Like To Try A Rat?, 143 U. Pa. L. Rev. 1889 (1995).      

Fabiano, Franco, Miscellaneous: Limits on Rabbit Drives, 21 Idaho L. Rev. 511 (1985).   

Falkin, Larry, Comment, Taub v. State: Are State Anti-Cruelty Statutes Sleeping Giants?, 2 Pace Envtl. L. Rev. 255 (1985).   

Favre, David, Laboratory Animal Act: A Legislative Proposal, 3 Pace Envtl. L. Rev. 123 (1986).   

Favre, David, Some Thoughts on Animal Experimentation, 2 Animal L. 161 (1997).

Favre, David, Time for a Sharper Legal Focus, 1 Animal L. 1 (1995). 

Favre, David, Wildlife Rights: The Ever-Widening Circle, 9 Envtl. L. 241 (1979).  

Favre, David & Vivian Tsang, The Development of Anti-Cruelty Laws During the 1800s, 1993 Det. C. L. Rev. 1 (Spring 1993).

Fawcett, Charles W., Vanishing Wildlife and Federal Protective Efforts, 1 Ecology L.Q. (1971).   

Finsen, Susan, Obstacles to Legal Rights for Animals: Can We Get There From Here?, 3 Animal L. i (1997).    

Fox, Michael Allen, On the ‘Necessary Suffering’ of Nonhuman Animals, 3 Animal L. 25 (1997).   

Fox, Nicole, The Inadequate Protection of Animals Against Cruel Animal Husbandry Practices Under United States Law, 17 Whittier L. Rev. 145 (1995).   

Francione, Gary L., Access to Animal Care Committees, 43 Rutgers L. Rev. 1 (1990).

Francione, Gary L., Animal Rights and Animal Welfare, 48 Rutgers L. Rev. 397 (1996).   

Francione, Gary L., Animal Rights on the USENET: Some Reflections, 21 Rutgers L. Rec. 4   (1996).      

Francione, Gary L., Animal Rights Theory and Utilitarianism: Relative Normative Guidance, 3 Animal L. 75 (1997).   

Francione, Gary L., Animals as Property, 2 Animal L. i (1996).   

Francione, Gary L., Animals, Property, and Legal Welfarism: "Unnecessary" Suffering and the "Humane" Treatment of Animals, 46 Rutgers L. Rev. 721 (1994).   

Francione, Gary L., Experimentation and the Marketplace Theory of the First Amendment, 136 U. Penn. L. Rev. 417 (1987).   

Francione, Gary L., Facing The Nation: The Standards for Copyright Infringement, and Fair Use of Factual Works, 134 U. Penn. L. Rev. 519 (1986).   

Francione, Gary L., The Constitutional Status of Restrictions on Experiments Involving Nonhuman Animals: A Comment on Professor Dresser’s Analysis, 40 Rutgers L. Rev. 797 (1988).    

Frank, Johnny, Factory Farming: An Imminent Clash Between Animal Rights Activists and Agribusiness, 7 B.C. Envtl. Aff. L. Rev. 423 (1979).   

Frasch, Pamela D. et al., State Animal Anti-Cruelty Statutes: An Overview, 5 Animal L. 69   (1999).    

Frederickson, Jodi K., He's All Heart . . . And a Little Pig Too: A Look at The FDA   Draft Xenotransplant Guideline, 52 Food Drug L.J. 429 (1997).    

Frey, R.G., Interests and Animal Rights, 27 Phil. Q. 254 (1977). 


Galvin, Roger W., What Rights for Animals? A Modest Proposal, 2 Pace Envtl. L. Rev. 245 (1985).   

Galvin, S., & H. Herzog, Jr., Ethical Ideology, Animal Rights Activism and Attitudes Toward the Treatment of Animals, 2 Ethics & Behavior 141 (1992).   

Ganong, Endangered Species Act Amendments of 1978: A Congressional Response to Tennessee Valley Authority v. Hill, 5 Colum. J. Envtl. L. 283 (1979).   

Gardner, Joshua E., Note, At the Intersection of Constitutional Standing, Congressional Citizen-Suits, and the Humane Treatment of Animals: Proposals to Strengthen the Animal Welfare Act, 68 Geo. Wash. L. Rev. 330 (2000).      

Garvin, Larry T., Note, Constitutional Limits on the Regulation of Laboratory Animal Research, 98 Yale L.J. 369 (1988).      

Gerson, Ben, Unleashing Animal Rights: The Movement to Give New Legal Rights to Man’s "Servants," 4 Nat'l L.J. 1 (1982).   

Geyer, Richard E., Extralabel Drug Use and Compounding in Veterinary Medicine, 52 Food    Drug L.J. 291 (1997).

Gidari, Albert, The Economy of Nature, Private Property, and the Endangered Species Act, 6 Fordham Envtl L.J. 661 (1995).

Glitzenstein, Eric, & John Fritschie, The Forest Service’s Bait and Switch: A Case Study on Bear Baiting and the Service’s Struggle to Adopt A Reasoned Policy on a Controversial Hunting Practice Within the National Forests, 1 Animal L. 45 (1995).   

Goodall, Jane, The Conflict Between Species in an Ever More Crowded World, 4 Animal L. i (1998).      

Goodall, Jane, & Steven M. Wise, Are Chimpanzees Entitled to Fundamental Legal Rights?, 3 Animal L. 61 (1997).

Goodkin, Susan L., The Evolution of Animal Rights, 18 Colum. Human Rts. L. Rev. 259 (1987).   

Goplerud, The Endangered Species Act: Does It Jeopardize the Continued Existence of Species?, 1979 Ariz. St. L.J. 487 (1979).   

Gordon, G.P., Legal Protection to Animals, 166 Westminster Rev. 218 (1906).   

Greenawalt, Kent, Religion And The State Article: The Limits Of Rationality And The Place Of Religious Conviction: Protecting Animals And The Environment, 27 Wm & Mary L. Rev. 1011 (1986).   


Heagle, Khristan A., Comment, Should There Be Another Ewe? A Critical Analysis of the European Union Cloning Legislation, 17 Dick. J. Int'l L. 135 (1998).      

Hamilton, Ruth R., Of Monkeys and Men—Article III Standing Requirements in Animal Biomedical Research Cases: International Primate Protection League v. Administrators of the Tulane Educational Fund, 24 Creighton L. Rev. 1515 (1991).   

Hanula, Robert W., & Peter Waverly Hill, Using Metaright Theory to Ascribe Kantian Rights to Animals Within Nozick’s Minimal State, 19 Ariz. L. Rev. 1 (1977). 

Hatfield, Senator Mark O., From Microbe to Man, 1 Animal L. 5 (1995). 

Havercamp, Steven J., Note, Are Moderate Animal Welfare Laws and a Sustainable Agricultural Economy Mutually Exclusive? Laws, Moral Implications, and Recommendations, 46 Drake L. Rev. 645 (1998).   

Hecht, Elizabeth Joy, Beyond Animal Legal Defense Fund v. Quigg: The Controversy Over Transgenic Animal Patents Continues, 41 Am. U. L. Rev. 1023 (1992).   

Heidemann, Craig R., Agricultural Law: Fencing Laws in Missouri: Confusion, Conflict, Ambiguity and a Need for Change, 63 Mo. L. Rev. 537 (1998).

Heil, Theresa, Note, Agricultural Nonpoint Source Runoff - The Effects Both On and Off the Farm: An Analysis of Federal and State Regulation of Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollutants, 5 Wis. Envtl. L.J. 43 (1998).      

Herrington, Alice, & Lewis Regenstein, The Plight of Ocean Mammals, 1 Envtl. Aff. 792 (1971).   

Hessler, Katherine, Where Do We Draw the Line Between Harassment and Free Speech: An Analysis of Hunter Harassment Law, 3 Animal L. 129 (1997).   

Hibschman, Harry, The Cat and the Law, 12 Temple L.Q. 89 (1937).   

Hoch, David, & Will Carrington Heath, Tracking the ADC: Ranchers’ Boom, Taxpayers’ Burden, 3 Animal L. 163 (1997).   

Hoch, David, Business Ethics, Law and the Corporate Use of Laboratory Animals, 21 Akron L. Rev. 201 (1987).   

Hofmeyer, Timothy G., Comment, Everybody's Got Something To Hide Except Me And My Patented Monkey: N1 Patentability Of Cloned Organisms, 16 J. Marshall J. Computer & Info. L. 971 (1998).    

Holzer, Henry Mark, Contradictions Will Out: Animal Rights vs. Animal Sacrilege in the Supreme Court, 1 Animal L. 79 (1995). 

Hughes, Elaine L. & Christiane Meyer, Animal Welfare Law in Canada and Europe, 6 Animal L. 23 (2000).

Husband, B.P., Equine Law, 12 J. Agric. Tax'n & L. 361 (1991).   

Hyde, Walter W., The Prosecution and Punishment of Animals and Lifeless Things in the Middle Ages and Modern Times, 64 U. Penn. L. Rev. 696 (1916). 


Iwasaka, Ryan M.T., Note, Chakrabarty to Chimeras: The Growing Need for Evolutionary   Biology in Patent Law, 109 Yale L.J. 1505 (2000).      


Johnson, Al., Animal Rights Cause Gains Credibility, 1 Animal L. 11 (1995).   

Johnson, Caroline E., Protecting the Animals: The Free Exercise Clause and the Prevention of Ritual Sacrifice, 21 Fla. St. U. L. Rev. 1295 (1994).   

Jozwiak, Elisabeth T., Comment, Worms, Mice, Cows and Pigs: The Importance of Animal   Patents in Developing Countries, 14 J. Intl. L. Bus. 620 (1994). 


Kawashima, Emily, Note, Church of the Lukumi Babalu Aye, Inc. v. City of Hialeah: Reaffirming The Supreme Court's Religious Free Exercise Jurisprudence, 16 Hawaii L. Rev. 401 (1994).      

Kelch, Thomas G., The Role of the Rational and the Emotive in a Theory of Animal Rights, 27   B.C. Envtl. Aff. L. Rev. 1 (1999).      

Kelch, Thomas G., Toward a Non-Property Status for Animals, 6 N.Y. U. L. J. 531 (1998).   

Kemnitz, D'Arcy, Comment, Hunting Moves to Suburbia's Backyard: The Animals, the Agencies, and the Passionate Conflict Over Backyard Kills, 6 U. Balt. J. Envtl. L. 219 (1998).      

Kennedy, Robert F., Jr. Falconry: Legal Ownership and Sale of Captive-Bred Raptors, 4 Pace Envtl. L. Rev. 349 (1987).   

Kerr, M.E.E., Animals in Court, 14 Green Bag 264 (1902).   

King, Joseph H., Jr., The Standard of Care for Veterinarians in Medical Malpractice Claims, 58 Tenn. L. Rev. 1 (1990).    

Klauber, Bridget, See No Evil, Hear No Evil: The Federal Courts and the Silver Spring Monkeys, 63 U. Colo. L. Rev. 501 (1992).   

Kniaz, Laura G., Animal Liberation and the Law: Animals Board the Underground Railroad, 43 Buffalo L. Rev. 765 (1995).   

Kopf, Jeffrey S., Slamming Shut the Ark Doors: Congress’ Attack on the Listing Process of the Endangered Species Act, 3 Animal L. 103 (1997).   

Kosakowski, Lee Ann, Environmental Law--The Endangered Species Act--Private Property   Rights--The Supreme Court Held That the Endangered Species Act Prohibits the Modification of the Habitats of Endangered and Threatened Animals, 34 Duq. L. Rev. 1253 (1996).      

Krause, Mark A., Perspectives on Domestic and Captive Animals: Biological Continuity and Great Ape Rights, 2 Animal L. 171 (1997).

Kress, Jack M., Xenotransplantation: Ethics and Economics, 53 Food Drug L.J. 353 (1998).   


Lacroix, Charlotte A., Another Weapon for Combating Family Violence: Prevention of Animal Abuse, 4 Animal L. 33 (1998).   

LaFrance, Arthur B., Bioethics and Animal Experimentation, 2 Animal L. 157 (1996).

Lake, Aaron, 1998 Legislative Review, 5 Animal L. 89 (1999).      

Lambert, Eugene I., Animal Drugs: Future Stepchild or Pioneer?, 55 Food Drug L.J. 33 (2000).      

Lambert, Eugene I., The Reformation of Animal Drug Law: The Impact of 1996, 52 Food Drug L.J. 277 (1997).      

Landau, Michael B., Multicellular Vertebrate Mammals As ‘Patentable Subject Matter’ Under 35 U.S.C. § 101: Promotion of Science and the Useful Arts or An Open Invitation For Abuse?, 97 Dickinson L. Rev. 203 (1993).   

Larson, Peggy W., Fourth Annual Conference on Animals and the Law: Rodeo Is Cruel Entertainment, 16 Pace Envtl. L. Rev. 115 (1998).      

Laska, Lewis L., The Tennessee Law of Squirrels, Robins, Snakes, Cats, Raccoons, and Elephants, 26 Tenn. B.J. 30 (1990).   

Levin, Bruce A. & Michael Spak, Lions & Lionesses, Tigers & Tigresses, Bears & ...Other Animals: Sellers' Liability for Dangerous Animals, 58 Notre Dame L. Rev. 537 (1983).  

Lipowski, Steven P., Note, In Search of Further Regulation of Cattle Under the Clean Water Act: Cattle as Point Sources After Oregon Natural Desert Association, 6 Wis. Envtl. L.J. 167 (1999).      

Libby, Stephen, Case Note, Constitutional Law: Animal Rights and Standing: Must it be Bedtime for Bonzo?, 21 Memphis State U. L. Rev. 791 (1991).   

Linzey, A., Blood Sport and Public Law, 145 New L.J. 6688 (1995).   

Liu, Ming-Han, Reconsidering Animal Rights: Should Selling Live Animals for Food Consumption Be Bad?, 6 Dick. J. Envtl L. & Pol’y 279 (1997).   

Lockwod, Randall, Animal Cruelty and Violence Against Humans: Making the Connection, 5   Animal L. 81 (1999).      

Looney, J.W., The Effect of NAFTA (And GATT) on Animal Health Laws and Regulations, 48 Oklahoma L. Rev. 367 (1995).   

Lowe, Robert, The Vivisection Act, 28 Contemporary Rev. 713 (1976).   

Lymann, Howard F., Free Speech, Animal Law and Food Activism, 5 Animal L. i (1999).      


Magnani, Thomas A., V. Biotechnology and Medical Devices: 1. Patenting Lifeforms: a) Chimeras: The Patentability of Human-Animal Chimeras, 14 Berkeley Tech. L.J. 443   (1999).    

Mallory, Richard, Obligations of Federal Agencies Under Section 7 of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, 28 Stanford L. Rev. 1247 (1976).   

 Mann, Joe, Note, Making Sense of the Endangered Species Act: A Human-Centered   Justification, 7 N.Y.U. Envtl. L. J. 246 (1999).      

Marquis, Joshua, Perspectives on Domestic and Captive Animals: The ‘Kittles’ Case and Its Aftermath, 2 Animal L. 197 (1997).   

Mason, Milo, The Bowhead Whale Controversy: Background and Aftermath of Adams v. Vance, 2 Harv. Envtl. L. Rev. 363 (1977).   

Masonis, Robert J., The Improved Standards for Laboratory Animals Act and the Proposed Regulations: A Glimmer of Hope in the Battle against Abusive Animal Research, 16 B.C. Envtl. Aff. L. Rev. 149 (1988).   

Mazor, Debigail, Veterinarians at Fault: Rare Breed of Malpractitioners, 7 U.C. Davis L. Rev. 400 (1974).   

McCarthy, Richard, & Robert Bennett, Statutory Protection for Farm Animals, 3 Pace Envtl. L. Rev. 229 (1986).   

McCartney-Smith, Enger, Can Non-Human Animals Find Tort Protection in a Human-Centered Common Law?, 4 Animal L. 173 (1998).      

McDonald, Karen L., Creating a Private Cause of Action Against Abusive Animal Research, 134 U. Penn. L. Rev. 399 (1986).   

McEvoy, Sharlene A., The Rise of Equine Liability Activity Acts, 3 Animal L. 201 (1997). 

McGovern, Matthew, Note, Biotechnology and the Patenting of Living Organisms, 3 Animal L 221 (1997).   

Mendelson, Joseph, III, Should Animals Have Standing? A Review of Standing Under the Animal Welfare Act, 24 B.C. Envtl. Aff. L. Rev. 795 (1997).   

Merges, R.P., Intellectual Property Rights in Higher Life Forms: The Patent System and Controversial Technologies, 47 Md. L. Rev. 1051 (1989).   

Messett, Marci, Note, They Asked for Protection and They Got Policy. International Primate’s Mutilated Monkeys, 21 Akron L. Rev. 97 (1987).   

Mollnow, Kristen E., Note, Concerned Area Residents for the Environment v. Southview Farm: Just What is a Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation Under the Clean Water Act?, 60 Alb. L. Rev. 239 (1996).      

Montgomery, Marsha L., Note, Building a Better Mouse--and Patenting It: Altering the Patent   Law To Accommodate Multicellular Organisms, 41 Case W. Res. 231 (1990).      

Morgan, Bronwen, Oh, Reason Not the Need: Rights and Other Imperfect Alternatives for Those Without a Voice, 24 L. & Soc. Inquiry 295 (1999).      

Morin, Eileen, Of Mice and Men: The Ethics of Patenting Animals, 5 Health L.J. 147 (1997).

Morris, Clarence, The Rights and Duties of Beasts and Trees: A Law Teacher’s Essay for Landscape Architects, 17 J. Legal Educ. 185 (1964).    

Murphy, Earl Finbar, Has Nature Any Right to Life?, 22 Hastings L.J. (1971). 


Neilsen, Eric W., Comment, Is The Law of Acquisition of Property by Find Going to the Dogs?, 15 T.M. Cooley L. Rev. 479 (1998).      

Newell, Barbara, Animal Custody Disputes: A Growing Crack in the "Legal Thinghood" of Nonhuman Animals, 6 Animal L. 179 (2000).

Noble, Martha L., & J.W. Looney, The Emerging Legal Framework for Animal Agricultural Waste Management in Arkansas, 47 Ark. L. Rev. 159, (1994).      

Nardo, Marilyn Lee, Feedlots—Rural America’s Sewer, 6 Animal L. 83 (2000).

Norwicki, Carole Lynn, The Animal Welfare Act: All Bark and No Bite, 23 Seton Hall Legis. J. 443 (1999).   

Nugent, Daniel, Patenting Living Matter in the European Community: Diriment of the Draft Directive, 16 Fordham Int'l L.J. 990 (1992/1993). 


O’Brien, Barbara, Animal Welfare Reform and the Magic Bullet: The Use and Abuse of Subtherapeutic Doses of Antibiotics in Livestock, 67 U. Colo. L. Rev. 407 (1996). 

O'Connor, Kevin W., Patenting Animals and Other Living Things, 65 S. Cal. L. Rev. 597 (1991).    

Ogden, Bryan D., Principles of Animal Research: Replacement, Reduction, Refinement, and Responsibility, 2 Animal L. 167 (1997).


Passamano, Russell J., Animal Protection--Trapping Regulations--N.J. Stat. Ann. 23:4-11 (West 1984), 8 Seton Hall Legis. J. 382 (1984).   

Pavelock, Lisa A., Towards Legal Rights for Laboratory Animals, 10 J. Legis. 198 (1983). 

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